Answers 1: VRE: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is a type of bacteria that lives in the human intestine, urinary tract and often found in the environment. VRE can be colonized inside the body without showing any symptoms however, if these bacteria are activated it is very difficult to treat because it is resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Depending on where the VRE bacteria are present in the body symptoms can vary causing many types of infections such as sepsis, urinary tract, abscesses, pneumonia etc. For more information on Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) visit our outbreak information page on our website:
VRE Outbreak Information
VRE Fact Sheet
Answers 2: MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (also known as MRSA or Staph) is a bacterium which can cause infections in different parts of the body. Depending on where it is located in the body the bacterium can cause mild skin infections such as sores or boils or more serious infections which infect surgical wounds, the bloodstream, the lungs or the urinary tract. It is hard to treat MRSA because over the years it has become resistant to antibiotics. For more information on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) visit our outbreak information page on our website:
MRSA Outbreak Information
MRSA Fact Sheet
Answers 3: Acinetobacter baumannii: Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacillus commonly spread through healthcare settings making this a common healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Although this uncommon species have low virulence they are still capable of causing infection. This organism is resistant to multiple antibiotics making it very difficult to control and treat. It can survive in many different environmental conditions and can survive for prolonged periods.
Acinetobacter baumannii Protocol
Answers 4: C. Diff: Clostridium difficile (also known as C. difficile, or C. Diff) can be a bacteria which can turn into a spore once ingested in the digestive system or if ingested as a spore can develop into a bacteria which can overgrow and release toxins that are harmful to the lining of the intestines. This infection can range from mild to life-threatening with symptoms such as; watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, loss of appetite, fever, and weight loss. For more information on C. Diff visit our outbreak information page on our website:
Clostridium difficile Outbreak Information
Clostridium difficile Fact Sheet
Clostridium difficile Protocol
Answers 5: Norovirus: Noroviruses (also known as the Norwalk virus) are a group of viruses which cause inflammation of the stomach and large intestine lining. Although not always transmitted through food, Norovirus is sometimes called food poisoning. Norovirus is also sometimes mistaken as the stomach flu but in fact is not the influenza virus. Symptoms usually include nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhea and stomach cramps and take effect within the first day to 2 days after being exposed. For more information on Norovirus visit our outbreak information page on our website:
Norovirus Outbreak Information
Norovirus Fact Sheet
Answers 6: Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Pseudomonas aeruginosa are infections that involve many different parts of the body which can be very complicated and sometimes life-threatening. Symptoms vary depending on the location of the infection. Some examples of symptoms would be pneumonia if located in the respiratory tract or endocarditis if located in the heart.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Protocol
Answers 7: Klebsiella pneumoniae: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a type of bacteria that is usually exposed to patients in healthcare settings making this an infection which is healthcare associated or commonly referred to as an HAI. Infections include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound or surgical site infections, and meningitis. This bacteria is usually found in human intestines but can also be found in human stool (feces).
Klebsiella pneumoniae Protocol
Answers 8: Influenza: Influenza virus (also known as the flu) is a respiratory illness which is very contagious and causes mild to severe illness. Older people and younger children and people with certain health conditions are more likely to have serious flu complications. Since this is such a common illness it is suggested to take the flu vaccine every year during the high season to prevent catching and spreading the virus. For more information on Influenza virus visit our outbreak information page on our website:
Influenza Outbreak Information
Influenza Fact Sheet